Demográfia English Edition 2020-07-22T11:41:49+02:00 Attila Melegh Open Journal Systems <p>Demográfia English Edition is the peer reviewed, open access annual journal of the Demographic Committee at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the Hungarian Demographic Research Institute. The journal has a broad scope in terms of geographic and thematic coverage. We encourage comparative analyses beyond Central and Eastern Europe about demographic processes, migration, family formation and related social phenomena. </p> <p><strong>Imprint</strong><br>Responsible publisher: Zsolt Spéder director<br>Editor: Attila Melegh<br>Publisher: Hungarian Demographic Research Institute <br>H-1024 Budapest, Buday László utca 1-3.</p> Hungarian trends and gender differences in the global smoking epidemic 2019-06-03T10:46:40+02:00 András Wéber This paper analyzes whether developments in Hungary are in keeping with the trends of the process known as the “global smoking epidemic.” To this end, the comparative cases of the USA and Austria are used as a benchmark for reviewing the results concerning tobacco consumption and sex differences in mortality. A comparative analysis has been conducted using prevalence and tobacco-related mortality data in longer-term perspectives. The study analyzes the descriptive statistics of the smoking-attributable premature mortality trends in Hungary between 2000 and 2015 by sex, age, and cause of death, using the updated method of the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The results show that Hungarian men are suffering more destructive consequences of the smoking epidemic than American or Austrian men. Hungarian and Austrian women are half a century behind the peak of the epidemic in the USA, and the harmful effect is also smaller than in the USA. Nevertheless, we can also predict that differences by sex will decrease significantly in the future. Between 2000 and 2015, male smoking-attributable mortality declined in Hungary; meanwhile, among women it increased dramatically. As a consequence, in the over-50 age group, increasing tobacco-related mortality is holding back the improvement in female mortality. The key causes of death attributable to smoking – e.g., bronchitis, emphysema, and COPD, and lung, bronchus, and trachea cancers – are also identified. All this means that, in every age group and for almost all causes of death, the differences by sex declined significantly in the period analyzed. Our results indicate that compared to the United States, the possibly more traditional gender roles characterizing Austrian and Hungarian society, and the related cultural norms, reduced the harm arising from the cigarette epidemic among Central and Eastern European women. However, a strong negative cohort effect can also be identified in the Hungarian female population born between 1945 and 1965, largely due to smoking. This implies that the promotion of a healthy life style among middle-aged and older females could be a major policy target. 2019-06-19T09:50:11+02:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Demográfia English Edition What shapes public attitudes towards assisted reproduction technologies in Europe? + On-line supplementary material 2020-07-22T11:41:49+02:00 Ivett Szalma, Maja Djundeva <p>By examining attitudes on assisted reproduction technologies (ART) in 42 European countries, we highlight individual and country-level factors that are associated with the level of social acceptance or rejection of ART. This paper contributes to the literature on social acceptance of artificial insemination and in-vitro fertilization, the two most prominent examples of ART in Europe, and directs attention to several previously under-researched aspects. The empirical base of this study is the fourth round of the European Values Study, conducted in 2008–2010. Using a multilevel random-intercept linear regression model, we examine the impact of several individual- and country-level characteristics on the agreement level with the statement that artificial insemination or in-vitro fertilization can always be justified, never be justified or it is evaulated in a mixed manner. According to our findings, there are strong relationships between attitudes towards ART and socio demographic variables, as well as religiousness and some individual attitudes, including those related to traditional family formation practices, “justification for homosexuality”, (non-)preference for homosexual neighbors and acceptance of adoption by homosexual couples. For country-level characteristics we find significant association only in the case of mean age at first birth of women. We do not find a significant relationship between attitudes towards ART and country-level variables such as GDP, religiosity and same-sex couples’ access to ART.</p> 2020-07-21T13:41:28+02:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Demográfia English Edition